Developments for Petrochemistry

The Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics of the RAS

Brief description: The bases of technology for methane production from methane hydrates occurring in the deep-water part of the world ocean by means of methane autolifting have been proposed. This method of methane delivery will allow gas mining from kilometer-deep seabed, and world stock of methane hydrates to be efficiently used, without additional energy expenses (except the energy used for the process launch and the pulp formation).

Brief description: Effective activating agents of catalytic systems have been developed, which improve elastomer properties of rubbers, with their net cost being essentially reduced. Besides, the methods for synthesis of rubbers with 1D-dimensional nano-filler (Nafen) have been developed. Introduction of 0.1-3 wt % of Nafen increases considerably the performance range of materials (thermooxidative destruction occurs at temperatures that are by 30-50 оС higher than for unfilled copolymer).

Brief description: Essentially new effective autothermal technology of non-catalytic conversion of natural and associated gases to syngas has been proposed, which is based on surface combustion of hydrocarbons in permeable bulk matrices. Surface combustion of hydrocarbons near the inner surface of bulk matrix, which is permeable to the gas mixture, provides recuperation of considerable part of the conversion products heat, due to intensive exchange of the flame front with the surface. Together with the absence of IR irradiation losses in the closed matrix bulk, the combustion limits are expanded considerably, thus allowing conversion of very rich hydrocarbon mixtures to syngas with almost thermodynamically equilibrium yield in non-catalytic gas phase process.

Brief description: A group of technological processes based on direct oxidation of various hydrocarbon gases has been developed at IPCP RAS, which provides various oxygenates, including alcohols (methanol, ethanol), aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde), acids (acetic acid), as well as olefins (ethylene, propylene), etc., in a simple one-step non-catalytic gas phase process. As far as the process is one-step, simple and technologically flexible, and no catalysts, and, hence, strict requirements to gas preparation and to its composition are necessary, it is economically more effective in small-capacity mode than traditional technologies for these products. This technology is much more efficient than all available foreign ones. By taking into account fundamental kinetic features of the process mechanism, the gas conversion and yield of the target products have been increased by several times, the process pressure has been decreased, the range of hydrocarbon gases for processing has been extended, and some new modifications of the process and fields of its application have been proposed.

Brief description: To avoid power-consuming and capital-intensive stages of syngas production, a promising alternative option of small-capacity GTL technologies was proposed, viz., direct partial oxidation of hydrocarbon gases and further carbonylation and/or oligomerization of the oxidation products. The process of direct oxidation of “fat” petroleum gases, which has been developed at IPCP RAS and ICP RAS, provides, depending on conditions of the process, either oxygen-containing products (methanol, formaldehyde, etc.) and CO, or light olefins and CO. Through interaction of oxygenates and CO or olefins and CO, a wide range of GTL products of a new type with high value added can be produced. The most of these products can be used directly at petroleum production, transportation and processing of produced petroleum stock or as fuel additives.